Cut broccoli into small florets and blanch in salted water for approx. 3 min. Drain in a sieve. Cook penne according to package instructions.
Chop garlic. Cut onion into half or quarter slices. Chop almonds.
Finely slice lemon and combine with sugar in a bowl.
Heat some oil in a pan and fry onions and garlic for approx. 2 min. Add almonds and fry briefly, then add lemon slices and sugar and caramelize for approx. 3 min.
Add broccoli florets. Season to taste with chili powder, salt, and pepper. Serve with penne and grated Parmesan cheese.